Monthly Archives: March 2021

The Third Crusade

What was the Third Crusade?

The Third Crusade (1189–1192) brought together the leaders of Angevin England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire with the goal to recapture the Holy Land. These three states were the most powerful pillars of Western Christianity at the time. However, Jerusalem had fallen under the control of the Ayyubid sultan Saladin in 1187. The Kings of England and France and the Holy Roman Emperor could not allow this. Continue reading

Flag of Jimenez (Navarre) and Flag of Plantagenets

How many Queens does a country need?

Many people will only remember a time when England had a single Queen. However, at the time of the first Magna Carta, 1215 onwards, there were several queens. Some of them had retired having lost their husbands but were still hanging about as surplus to the country’s needs. All of these figures feature in the novels Berengaria – Books I & II and Henry III – Book I. Continue reading